Category Archives: Linux

How to Optimize your WiFi Signal and Speed Up your Web Surfing

Are you suffering from frequent connection drops or slower download speed?
Are you located in a relatively densely populated area?

If your are surfing the web in a densely populated area, it is likely that multiple WiFi networks are within range. If you experience frequent connection drops or slower speed, it is most likely due to multiple network signals competing for the same channel.

Here is a simple 2 step solution for that.
 
Continue reading “How to Optimize your WiFi Signal and Speed Up your Web Surfing” »

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How to I install python 2.7.5 on Ubuntu – 4 Simple Steps

1. Install dependencies
sudo apt-get install build-essential checkinstall
sudo apt-get install libreadline-gplv2-dev libncursesw5-dev libssl-dev libsqlite3-dev tk-dev libgdbm-dev libc6-dev libbz2-dev
2. Download python
cd ~/Downloads/
wget http://python.org/ftp/python/2.7.5/Python-2.7.5.tgz
3. Extract download
tar -xvf Python-2.7.5.tgz

Continue reading “How to I install python 2.7.5 on Ubuntu – 4 Simple Steps” »

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How to Install a Hidden Service on Apache Over Ubuntu

1. Update packages and install apache and tor
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install -y apache2 tor
2. Limit apache to only listen to localhost over port 80
echo "Listen 127.0.0.1:80" >  /etc/apache2/ports.conf
3. Set permissions for debian-tor
vim /etc/apache2/envvars

Comment out:

#export APACHE_RUN_USER=www-data
#export APACHE_RUN_GROUP=www-data

And add:

export APACHE_RUN_USER=debian-tor
export APACHE_RUN_GROUP=debian-tor

Save (Esc :w) and quit(:q).

service apache2 stop 
sudo chown -R debian-tor:debian-tor /var/{lock,log}/apache2 /var/www 
4. Secure your private key
vim /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
<FilesMatch "private_key">
        Require all denied
</FilesMatch>

Save and quit.

vim /etc/apache2/conf-enabled/security.conf
ServerSignature Off
ServerTokens Prod

Save and quit.

5. Create a test page and start apache
echo "Test page" >  /var/www/index.html 
service apache2 start
6. Configure tor
cat >> /etc/tor/torrc << EOF 
HiddenServiceDir /var/www
HiddenServicePort 80 127.0.0.1:80
EOF 
vim /etc/apparmor.d/system_tor

Add:

owner /var/www/** rwk,

Save and quit.

service apparmor restart 
service tor restart
All done

You can get your domain from /var/www/hostname

cat /var/www/hostname

And publish it.

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How to Use Vim – Vim Cheat Sheet

Cursor movement

  • h – move cursor left
  • j – move cursor down
  • k – move cursor up
  • l – move cursor right
  • w – jump forwards to the start of a word
  • W – jump forwards to the start of a word (words can contain punctuation)
  • e – jump forwards to the end of a word
  • E – jump forwards to the end of a word (words can contain punctuation)
  • b – jump backwards to the start of a word
  • B – jump backwards to the start of a word (words can contain punctuation)
  • 0 – jump to the start of the line
  • ^ – jump to the first non-blank character of the line
  • $ – jump to the end of the line
  • G – go to the last line of the document
  • 5G – go to line 5
  • fx – jump to next occurrence of character x
  • tx – jump to before next occurrence of character x
  • } – Jump to next paragraph (or function/block, when editing code)
  • { – Jump to previous paragraph (or function/block, when editing code)

Insert mode – inserting/appending text

  • i – insert before the cursor
  • I – insert at the beginning of the line
  • a – insert (append) after the cursor
  • A – insert (append) at the end of the line
  • o – append (open) a new line below the current line
  • O – append (open) a new line above the current line
  • ea – insert (append) at the end of the word
  • Esc – exit insert mode

Editing

  • r – replace a single character
  • J – join line below to the current one
  • cc – change (replace) entire line
  • cw – change (replace) to the end of the word
  • c$ – change (replace) to the end of the line
  • s – delete character and substitute text
  • S – delete line and substitute text (same as cc)
  • xp – transpose two letters (delete and paste)
  • u – undo
  • Ctrl + r – redo
  • . – repeat last command

Marking text (visual mode)

  • v – start visual mode, mark lines, then do a command (like y-yank)
  • V – start linewise visual mode
  • o – move to other end of marked area
  • Ctrl + v – start visual block mode
  • O – move to other corner of block
  • aw – mark a word
  • ab – a block with ()
  • aB – a block with {}
  • ib – inner block with ()
  • iB – inner block with {}
  • Esc – exit visual mode

Visual commands

  • > – shift text right
  • < – shift text left
  • y – yank (copy) marked text
  • d – delete marked text
  • ~ – switch case

Cut and paste

  • yy – yank (copy) a line
  • 2yy – yank (copy) 2 lines
  • yw – yank (copy) word
  • y$ – yank (copy) to end of line
  • p – put (paste) the clipboard after cursor
  • P – put (paste) before cursor
  • dd – delete (cut) a line
  • 2dd – delete (cut) 2 lines
  • dw – delete (cut) word
  • D – delete (cut) to the end of the line
  • d$ – delete (cut) to the end of the line
  • x – delete (cut) character

Exiting

  • :w – write (save) the file, but don’t exit
  • :wq or :x or ZZ – write (save) and quit
  • :q – quit (fails if there are unsaved changes)
  • :q! or ZQ – quit and throw away unsaved changes

Search and replace

  • /pattern – search for pattern
  • ?pattern – search backward for pattern
  • \vpattern – ‘very magic’ pattern: non-alphanumeric characters are interpreted as special regex symbols (no escaping needed)
  • n – repeat search in same direction
  • N – repeat search in opposite direction
  • :%s/old/new/g – replace all old with new throughout file
  • :%s/old/new/gc – replace all old with new throughout file with confirmations

Working with multiple files

  • :e filename – edit a file in a new buffer
  • :bnext or :bn – go to the next buffer
  • :bprev or :bp – go to the previous buffer
  • :bd – delete a buffer (close a file)
  • :sp filename – open a file in a new buffer and split window
  • :vsp filename – open a file in a new buffer and vertically split window
  • Ctrl + ws – split window
  • Ctrl + ww – switch windows
  • Ctrl + wq – quit a window
  • Ctrl + wv – split window vertically
  • Ctrl + wh – move cursor to the left window (vertical split)
  • Ctrl + wl – move cursor to the right window (vertical split)
  • Ctrl + wj – move cursor to the window below (horizontal split)
  • Ctrl + wk – move cursor to the window above (horizontal split)

Tabs

  • :tabnew filename or :tabn filename – open a file in a new tab
  • Ctrl + wT – move the current split window into its own tab
  • gt or :tabnext or :tabn – move to the next tab
  • gT or :tabprev or :tabp – move to the previous tab
  • #gt – move to tab number #
  • :tabmove # – move current tab to the #th position (indexed from 0)
  • :tabclose or :tabc – close the current tab and all its windows
  • :tabonly or :tabo – close all tabs except for the current one

 

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