# How to Play and Win 2048 – Tips, Tricks and Online Game

2048 is a single-player puzzle game in which the objective is to obtain a 2048 tile. A 2048 tile is achieved by combining matching numbered tiles on a 4 by 4 grid.

There are 4 possible moves:
Left to Right” – Right arrow key.
Right to Left” – Left arrow key.
Top to Bottom” – Up arrow key.
Bottom to Top” – Down arrow key.
With every move a new tile (with a value of 2 or 4) randomly appear in an empty spot on the board.

Tiles slide as far as possible in the chosen direction until they are stopped by either another tile or the edge of the board. If two tiles of the same number collide while moving, they will merge into a single tile with their sum value – e.g.: 2 and 2 becomes 4, 4 and 4 becomes 8 and so forth.
The resulting tile cannot merge with another tile again in the same move.

The game is over when the board is full and there aren’t any possible moves left.

In order to reach the mythical 2048 tile, the player must play strategically and maintain enough room on the board to achieve the tile.

# How to Calculate BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) – BMR Formula and Online TDEE BMR Calculator

Basal Metabolic Rate or BMR refers to the amount of energy or calories needed for vital bodily functions over a 24 hours period in a state of rest. An indirect rough estimation of ones BMR is calculated using the Mifflin St Jeor Equation.

# The Formula

P – Total heat production.
m – Mass or weight in KG.
h – Height in CM.
s – Sex or gender: +5 for men and −161 for women.

###### Or Simplified:

BMR for men = 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (years) + 5
BMR for women = 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (years) – 161

Basal Metabolic Rate accounts for 70% of the TDEE – Total Daily Energy Expenditure. The remaining 30% expenditure comes from physical activity (roughly 20%) and thermogenesis or digestion of food (about 10%).

CM

KG

ft. in.

lbs.

# Related Subjects:

BMI Calculator.
Online Grams to Calories Converter.

# How to Convert Grams of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates to Calories – Online Grams to Calories Converter

Fats, proteins and carbohydrates are macronutrients and thus provide energy. Energy is measured in calories. The amount of energy in 1 gram differs between macronutrients:

• Fat has 9 calories per gram.
• Protein has 4 calories per gram.
• Carbohydrates have 4 calories per gram.
Carbohydrates may partially consist of Dietary Fiber. Dietary fiber can not be digested and thus should be subtracted from the total Carbohydrates.

# The formula:

(Fat x 9) + (Protein x 4) + ( (CarbohydratesDietary Fiber) * 4) = Total Calories

###### Example:

(1 x 9) + (1 x 4) + ( (354) * 4) = 137

gram
gram
gram
gram

# BMR

To find out how many calories you require a day with different levels of activity, please refer to the BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) Calculator.

# How to calculate BMI – BMI Formula and Online BMI Calculator

Despite it’s name – Body Mass Index, BMI does not measure body fat directly. However, research has shown that BMI is moderately correlated with direct measures of body fat, and more importantly BMI appears to be as strongly correlated with various metabolic and disease outcome as the direct measures of body fat.
If you are interested in direct measurements you might be interested in the instruments below, otherwise continue reading.

# How is BMI calculated?

###### Step 2 – weight

Divide your weight in kilograms by the value calculated in step 1. For US unit multiply your height by 703 and then divide by the value calculated in step 1.

# BMI calculator

``` ```

``` Units MetricUS Gender MaleFemale Age Height CM Weight KG Height ft. in. Weight lbs. Result 0.0 Underweight < 0 Healthy weight 0 - 0 Overweight 0 - 0 Obese 0 - 0 Morbidly obese > 0 Ideal weight 0 - 0 ```
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# BMR

If your BMI is above or below healthy weight, please refer to the BMR Calculator to find out how many calories you should be taking in daily.

# Macronutrients

If you would like to calculate how many of your calories come from fat, protein, and carbohydrates, please refer to the Online Grams to Calories Converter.

# 2016 Supreme Court Justices Cheat Sheet, Bios and Position on the Issues

## Anthony McLeod Kennedy, Associate Justice

Born in Sacramento, California, July 23, 1936. Nominated by President Ronald Reagan on November 11, 1987, and took office on February 18, 1988. Kennedy was preceded by Lewis Powell appointed by Richard Nixon. Kennedy is a Roman Catholic, Republican, married (since 1963) to Mary Davis and has 3 children.

Kennedy, who was appointed by a Republican president is expected, in theory, to be one of the conservative justices. However in practice, he has long been the most enigmatic of the swing voters on many of the Court’s 5–4 decisions.

#### Potions on the issues

###### Abortion
• In Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) Kennedy voted to uphold Roe v. Wade (1973), which extended the 14th Amendment to a woman’s decision to have an abortion.
• In the case of Hill v. Colorado (2000) Kennedy, citing the First amendment, disagreed with the Court’s rejection of pro-life activists’ challenge to a Colorado statute limiting their ability to engage in leafleting and counseling outside abortion clinics.
###### Capital punishment
• In Atkins v. Virginia (2002) and Roper v. Simmons (2005) Kennedy agreed that the execution of the mentally ill and those under 18 at the time of the crime was unconstitutional.
• In Kennedy v. Louisiana (2008) Kennedy delivered the majority opinion which ruled unconstitutional the death penalty for a man convicted of rape, based on the prohibition in the Eighth Amendment against cruel and unusual punishment. Kennedy wrote that “the death penalty should not be expanded to instances where the victim’s life was not taken.”.
###### Gay rights
• In Romer v. Evans (1996) Kennedy delivered the majority ruling to recognize the GLBT as a constitutionally-protected class.
• In Lawrence v. Texas (2003) Kennedy delivered the majority ruling to disallow all sodomy laws against same-sex activity.
• In United States v. Windsor (2013) Kennedy delivered the majority ruling to strike down a federal law denying benefits to married same-sex couples.
• In Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) Kennedy delivered the majority ruling to guarantee same-sex couples the right to marry.
• In Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000) Kennedy joined the majority ruling that the Boy Scouts of America had a First Amendment right to ban homosexuals from being scoutmasters.
###### Gun control
• In District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) Kennedy joined the majority to overturn the ban on handguns in the District of Columbia, as the ban violates the Second Amendment.
###### Habeas corpus
• In Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004) Kennedy joined the Plurality, ruling that enemy combatants who are U.S. citizens must have the rights of due process, and the ability to challenge their status before an impartial authority.
• In Boumediene v. Bush (2008) Kennedy delivered the majority ruling that Guantanamo Bay prisoners have a constitutional right to go to federal court to challenge their continued detention.

## Clarence Thomas, Associate Justice

Born in Pin Point, Georgia, June 23, 1948. Nominated by George H. W. Bush on July 1, 1991, narrowly confirmed and took office on October 23, 1991. Thomas was preceded by Thurgood Marshall, the first African-American justice to serve on the Supreme Court, appointed by Lyndon Johnson. Thomas is a Roman Catholic, Republican, on his second marriage to Virginia Lamp and has one child.

Thomas is the second African-American justice to serve on the Supreme Court. Thomas is a quintessential conservative justice.

#### Potions on the issues

###### Abortion
• In Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) Thomas join the dissented from the plurality’s decision to uphold Roe v. Wade (1973), and strike down the spousal notification law, contending that Roe was incorrectly decided questioning the fundamental right to an abortion, the “right to privacy,” and the strict scrutiny application in Roe.
• In the case of Hill v. Colorado (2000) Thomas disagreed with the Court’s rejection of pro-life activists’ challenge to a Colorado statute limiting their ability to engage in leafleting and counseling outside abortion clinics.
###### Capital punishment
• In Atkins v. Virginia (2002) and Roper v. Simmons (2005) Thomas disagreed with the Court’s ruling that the execution of the mentally ill and those under 18 at the time of the crime was unconstitutional, stating that the Eighth Amendment provided no measures to determine what is “cruel and unusual”.
• In Kennedy v. Louisiana (2008) Thomas joined the dissent arguing that child rape is a capital offense and can carry the death penalty.
###### Gay rights
• In Romer v. Evans (1996) Thomas joined the dissent arguing that if it is constitutionally permissible for a state to make homosexual conduct criminal, surely it is constitutionally permissible for a State to enact laws disfavoring homosexual conduct.
• In Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000) Thomas joined the majority ruling that the Boy Scouts of America had a First Amendment right to ban homosexuals from being scoutmasters.
• In Lawrence v. Texas (2003) Thomas dissented the majority ruling joining the argument that disallowing sodomy laws against same-sex activity dismantles the structure of constitutional law that has permitted a distinction between heterosexual and homosexual unions.
• In United States v. Windsor (2013) Thomas dissented the majority ruling to strike down a federal law denying benefits to married same-sex couples.
• In Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) Thomas dissented the majority ruling to guarantee same-sex couples the right to marry.
###### Gun control
• In District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) Thomas joined the majority to overturn the ban on handguns in the District of Columbia, as the ban violates the Second Amendment.
###### Habeas corpus
• In Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004) Thomas dissented from the Plurality ruling, he was the only justice who sided entirely with the Executive branch. In Thomas’s view, based on the security interests at stake enemy combatants who are U.S. citizens may not have the right of due process.
• In Boumediene v. Bush (2008) Thomas joined the dissent against the majority ruling that Guantanamo Bay prisoners have a constitutional right to go to federal court to challenge their continued detention.

## Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Associate Justice

Born in New York City, New York, March 15 1933. Nominated by Bill Clinton on June 14, 1993 and took office August 10, 1993. Ginsburg was preceded by Byron White appointed by John F. Kennedy. Ginsburg is a Jewish, Democrat, widowed since 2010 and has 2 children.

Ginsberg is the second female justice to serve in the Supreme Court. Before becoming a judge, she served as the director of the Women’s Rights Project of the American Civil Liberties Union. Ginsburg is generally viewed as belonging to the liberal wing of the Court.

#### Potions on the issues

###### Abortion
• In the case of Hill v. Colorado (2000) Ginsburg joined the Court’s rejection of pro-life activists’ challenge to a Colorado statute limiting their ability to engage in leafleting and counseling outside abortion clinics.
###### Capital punishment
• In Atkins v. Virginia (2002) and Roper v. Simmons (2005) Ginsburg agreed that the execution of the mentally ill and those under 18 at the time of the crime was unconstitutional.
• In Kennedy v. Louisiana (2008) Ginsburg joined the majority opinion which ruled unconstitutional the death penalty for a man convicted of rape, based on the prohibition in the Eighth Amendment against cruel and unusual punishment.
###### Gay rights
• In Romer v. Evans (1996) Ginsburg joined the majority ruling to recognize the GLBT as a constitutionally-protected class.
• In Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000) Ginsburg joined the dissent, objecting to the majority ruling to uphold the Boy Scouts of America’s organizational right to ban homosexuals from being scoutmasters, based on the fact that in “the Boy Scouts’ Law and Oath” there is no term expressing any position on sexual matters.
• In Lawrence v. Texas (2003) Ginsburg joined the majority ruling to disallow all sodomy laws against same-sex activity.
• In United States v. Windsor (2013) Ginsburg joined the majority ruling to strike down a federal law denying benefits to married same-sex couples.
• In Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) Ginsburg joined the majority ruling to guarantee same-sex couples the right to marry.
###### Gun control
• In District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) Ginsburg dissented from the majority ruling to overturn the ban on handguns in the District of Columbia, as the ban violates the Second Amendment.
###### Habeas corpus
• In Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004) Ginsburg joined the Plurality, ruling that enemy combatants who are U.S. citizens must have the rights of due process, and the ability to challenge their status before an impartial authority. However, she dissented from the plurality’s ruling that “Authorization for Use of Military Force” established Congressional authorization for the detention of enemy combatants.
• In Boumediene v. Bush (2008) Ginsburg joined the majority ruling that Guantanamo Bay prisoners have a constitutional right to go to federal court to challenge their continued detention.

## Stephen Gerald Breyer, Associate Justice

Born in San Francisco, California, August 15, 1938. Nominated by Bill Clinton May 13, 1994 and took office August 3, 1994. Breyer was preceded by Harry Blackmun who was nominated by Richard Nixon. Breyer is a Jewish, Democrat, married to Joanna Freda Hare (since 1967) and has 3 children.

Breyer is considered one of the best writers in the federal court system, he has authored several books about federal regulation. Breyer occasionally sides with the conservative wing, however more often allies with the Court’s liberal wing.

###### Abortion
• In the case of Hill v. Colorado (2000) Breyer joined the Court’s rejection of pro-life activists’ challenge to a Colorado statute limiting their ability to engage in leafleting and counseling outside abortion clinics.
###### Capital punishment
• In Atkins v. Virginia (2002) and Roper v. Simmons (2005) Breyer agreed that the execution of the mentally ill and those under 18 at the time of the crime was unconstitutional.
• In Kennedy v. Louisiana (2008) Breyer joined the majority opinion which ruled unconstitutional the death penalty for a man convicted of rape, based on the prohibition in the Eighth Amendment against cruel and unusual punishment.
###### Gay rights
• In Romer v. Evans (1996) Breyer joined the majority ruling to recognize the GLBT as a constitutionally-protected class.
• In Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000) Breyer joined the dissent, objecting to the majority ruling to uphold the Boy Scouts of America’s organizational right to ban homosexuals from being scoutmasters, based on the fact that in “the Boy Scouts’ Law and Oath” there is no term expressing any position on sexual matters.
• In Lawrence v. Texas (2003) Breyer joined the majority ruling to disallow all sodomy laws against same-sex activity.
• In United States v. Windsor (2013) Breyer joined the majority ruling to strike down a federal law denying benefits to married same-sex couples.
• In Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) Breyer joined the majority ruling to guarantee same-sex couples the right to marry.
###### Gun control
• In District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) Breyer dissented from the majority ruling to overturn the ban on handguns in the District of Columbia, as the ban violates the Second Amendment.
###### Habeas corpus
• In Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004) Breyer joined the Plurality, ruling that enemy combatants who are U.S. citizens must have the rights of due process, and the ability to challenge their status before an impartial authority.
• In Boumediene v. Bush (2008) Breyer joined the majority ruling that Guantanamo Bay prisoners have a constitutional right to go to federal court to challenge their continued detention.

## John G. Roberts, Jr., Chief Justice of the United States

Born in Buffalo, New York, January 27, 1955. Nominated by George W. Bush July 19, 2005 and took office September 29, 2005. Roberts was preceded by James Buckley who was appointed by Ronald Reagan. Roberts is Roman Catholic, Republican, married to Jane Sullivan (since 1996) and has 2 children.

Roberts belongs to the conservative wing of the Court, though he did side with the liberal wing when reaffirming the legality of Obamacare.

###### Capital punishment
• In Kennedy v. Louisiana (2008) Roberts joined the dissent arguing that child rape is a capital offense and can carry the death penalty.
###### Environment
• In Rapanos v. United States (2006) Roberts concurred with the Court’s ruling to prevent federal jurisdiction to regulate isolated wetlands under the Clean Water Act.
• In Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency (2007) Roberts went against the majority ruling to force the EPA to regulate carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases as pollutants, arguing that Massachusetts’ alleged injury was too speculative due to insufficient scientific evidence that greenhouse gases contribute to global warming, and that there is no traceable causal connection between the EPA’s refusal to enforce emission standards and petitioners’ injuries.
• In Entergy Corp. v. Riverkeeper Inc. (2009) Roberts joined the majority to uphold the EPA’s decision to allow cost–benefit analysis when determining best technology available to maintain national environmental standards.
• In Coeur Alaska, Inc. v. Southeast Alaska Conservation Council (2009) Roberts joined the majority, voting in favor of an Alaskan mining company, to uphold a USACE permit to dump waste into a lake.
###### Gay rights
• In United States v. Windsor (2013) Roberts dissented the majority ruling to strike down a federal law denying benefits to married same-sex couples, arguing the “Defense of Marriage Act” was unconstitutional because the federal government was interfering with state control of marriage.
• In Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) Roberts dissented the majority ruling to guarantee same-sex couples the right to marry, criticizing the Court for expanding fundamental rights without caution or regard for history – namely the historic definition of marriage the “the union of a man and a woman”.
###### Gun control
• In District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) Roberts joined the majority to overturn the ban on handguns in the District of Columbia, as the ban violates the Second Amendment.
###### Habeas corpus
• In Boumediene v. Bush (2008) Roberts dissented from the majority ruling and argued against Guantanamo Bay prisoners having a constitutional right to go to federal court to challenge their continued detention.

## Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr., Associate Justice

Born in Trenton, New Jersey, April 1, 1950. Nominated by George W. Bush on November 10, 2005 and took office January 31, 2006. Alito was preceded by Sandra Day O’Connor who was appointed by Ronald Reagan. Alito is a Roman Catholic, Republican, married to Martha Bomgardner and has 2 children.
Alito belongs to the conservative wing of the Court.

###### Capital punishment
• In Kennedy v. Louisiana (2008) Alito led the dissent arguing that child rape is a capital offense and can carry the death penalty.
###### Environment
• In Rapanos v. United States (2006) Alito joined the plurality ruling to prevent federal jurisdiction to regulate isolated wetlands under the Clean Water Act.
• In Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency (2007) Alito joined Roberts in the dissent, voting against forcing the EPA to regulate carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases as pollutants, arguing that Massachusetts’ alleged injury was too speculative due to insufficient scientific evidence that greenhouse gases contribute to global warming, and that there is no traceable causal connection between the EPA’s refusal to enforce emission standards and petitioners’ injuries.
• In Entergy Corp. v. Riverkeeper Inc. (2009) Alito joined the majority to uphold the EPA’s decision to allow cost–benefit analysis when determining best technology available to maintain national environmental standards.
• In Coeur Alaska, Inc. v. Southeast Alaska Conservation Council (2009) Alito joined the majority, voting in favor of an Alaskan mining company, to uphold a USACE permit to dump waste into a lake.
###### Gay rights
• In United States v. Windsor (2013) Alito dissented the majority ruling to strike down a federal law denying benefits to married same-sex couples, arguing the “Defense of Marriage Act” was unconstitutional because the federal government was interfering with state control of marriage.
• In Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) Alito dissented the majority ruling to guarantee same-sex couples the right to marry.
###### Gun control
• In District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) Alito joined the majority to overturn the ban on handguns in the District of Columbia, as the ban violates the Second Amendment.
###### Habeas corpus
• In Boumediene v. Bush (2008) Alito joined the dissent against the majority ruling that Guantanamo Bay prisoners have a constitutional right to go to federal court to challenge their continued detention.

## Sonia Sotomayor, Associate Justice

Born in New York City, New York, June 25, 1954. Nomintaed in May 2009 by Barack Obama and took office on August 8, 2009. Sotomayor was preceded by David Souter who was nominated by George H. W. Bush. Sotomayor is a Roman catholic, Democrat, married to Kevin Noonan (since 1976) and has no children.

Sotomayor’s desire to become a judge was inspired by the TV show Perry Mason. She is the third woman chosen to serve in the Supreme Court and the first Latina Supreme Court Justice in U.S. history.

###### Gay rights
• In United States v. Windsor (2013) Sotomayor joined the majority ruling to strike down a federal law denying benefits to married same-sex couples.
• In Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) Sotomayor joined the majority ruling to guarantee same-sex couples the right to marry.

## Elena Kagan, Associate Justice

Born in New York City, New York, April 28 ,1960. Nominated by Barack Obama May 10, 2010 and took office August 7, 2010. Kagan was preceded by John Paul Stevens who was nominated by Gerald Ford. Kagan is a Jewish, Democrat, unmarried and has no children.
Kagen is the forth woman chosen to serve in the Supreme Court.

###### Gay rights
• In United States v. Windsor (2013) Kagan joined the majority ruling to strike down a federal law denying benefits to married same-sex couples.
• In Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) Kagan joined the majority ruling to guarantee same-sex couples the right to marry.

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